Overview of Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that involve infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by inflammatory cells (white blood cells) in dogs. IBD can affect both the upper (stomach and small intestine) and lower (colon) gastrointestinal tracts.
IBD is the most common cause of chronic (persistent) vomiting and diarrhea in dogs. The cause of IBD is currently unknown.
The most common form of IBD is usually seen in middle aged to older animals; however, there are some forms of IBD that are seen in young dogs, often less than 5 years old. Breeds that may be at an increased risk for development of IBD include the German shepherd, boxer, shar-pei soft coated wheaton terrier and Rottweiler.
IBD can cause a range of clinical signs from mild gastrointestinal illness to debilitating disease.
What to Watch For
Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs
Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs
Home Care and Prevention
Give all medications as prescribed by your veterinarian. Careful adherence to dietary recommendations is crucial. Feed only the prescribed diet. Do not feed table scraps or other foods, including natural chew toys (rawhides).
Observe for inappropriate response to treatment or worsening of clinical signs at home. Persistent vomiting and diarrhea, continued weight loss, lack of appetite and lethargy should prompt a call to your veterinarian.
There are no measures that can be taken with respect to preventing the development of IBD. Prevention of relapses after initial treatment may require long-term to life-long therapy.
In-Depth Information on Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs
Although IBD is a common cause of chronic vomiting and diarrhea in dogs and cats, its cause remains unknown. Proposed mechanisms of disease include an abnormal response of the immune system (hyperactivity or hypersensitivity) to either normal bacterial contents of the gut or various components of ingested food, versus an appropriate immune response to a pathogen that causes the disease.
Dietary factors are believed to play a role in the disease process because many animals respond to dietary manipulation. Regardless of the cause, IBD results in vomiting and diarrhea secondary to an accumulation of white blood cells in the lining of the intestinal walls. This infiltration by white cells causes inflammation and inhibits normal digestion and absorption of food. Abnormalities of gastrointestinal motility, or movement of the gut due to muscular activity in the intestinal walls, may also cause some of the clinical signs seen in IBD.
Several different types of IBD exist. These are differentiated based upon the type of white cell that is involved in the infiltrate. The clinical signs that are noticed in your pet depends upon whether the inflammatory process is occurring in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. Animals with upper GI involvement tend to experience vomiting, diarrhea with a normal to increased volume of feces, weight loss if signs are chronic and severe, occasional dark, tarry stools, which may represent blood loss into the gut, and occasional gas and borborygmus (loud GI sounds). Animals with lower GI involvement may experience vomiting as well.
The character of the diarrhea is different with lower GI disease. This usually manifests as more frequent defecation of a smaller volume, with straining to defecate, fresh blood and/or mucus in the feces, and a greater urgency associated with defecation. Usually animals with lower GI disease do not show significant weight loss.
Upper and lower GI IBD is common in dogs but cats more commonly suffer from IBD involving the upper GI tract. Many diseases can cause vomiting and diarrhea and must be differentiated from IBD. These include:
Information In-depth of Diagnosis of IBD in Dogs
Treatment In-depth of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Dogs
Home Care of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Optimal treatment for your pet involves a combination of home and professional veterinary care. Follow-up can be critical, especially if your pet does not rapidly improve.